Edwin Hubble and his assistant Milton Humason, using stars called Cepheid variables as a measuring yardstick, confirmed the relation between redshift and distance.
Based on Wirtz's and Hubble's observations, in 1927, Lemaitre put forward his hypothesis of an expanding universe in which he concluded that the universe as a whole must be expanding, driving the galaxies apart. In 1931, Lemaitre released his theory of the "primeval atom". However, by the end of the 1930's this concept fell into disfavour along with the Big Bang Theory.
In 1946, George Gamow put forward a second version of the Big Bang. As proof of this hypothesis, he cited the abundance of elements which he assumed could not have been produced by any process continuing in the present-day universe. He envisioned the universe would begin much like an A-Bomb, as a hot neutron gas; as the neutrons bombarded one another, they would fuse forming light elements, then increasingly heavier ones. Gamow was able to show that heavy elements would be produced in amounts close to those actually observed. Gamow claimed that stars were not hot enough to produce the elements heavier than helium and, therefore, these elements had to had been created in the more intense heat of the Big Bang.However, in April of 1946, British astronomer, Sir Fred Hoyle, put forward an alternative hypothesis involving stars that have exhausted their hydrogen fuel. Hoyle was able to show that the various stages that a star goes through would produce the heavier elements in roughly the observed proportions. If the Big Bang had occurred, the two processes together would have produced more heavy elements than is actually observed. This created a major problem for the Big Bang adherents.
By 1948, Hoyle along with Thomas Gold and H.Bondi had formulated their Steady State Theory. For the next decade, the Big Bang Theory and the Steady State Theory both had their proponents. After years of work, in 1957, Margaret and Gregory Burbridge, William Fowler and Hoyle published a detailed theory showing how stellar systems would produce all known elements in proportions very close to those observed to exist. This new theory was rapidly accepted as substantially correct. Although this theory was able to show how the heavier elements were created, it failed to account for the abundance of helium and certain light elements such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium and boron which are burned in the stars. Hoyle's theory was that hydrogen atoms were forming spontaneously in space, but he could not explain the formation of the other light elements.
At this point in time, both leading hypothesis were in trouble with neither side having an advantage.
In an effort to save the Big Bang Theory, Gamow, calculated the temperature
of the radiation coming from the Big Bang would appear today to be 20o
K. P.J.E.Peebles also calculated the temperature of the radiation and
concluded it would be 30o K. When the Bell Laboratories discovered
the microwave background radiation which they found had a temperature of
3.5o K, it was hailed as proof of the Big Bang Theory. The fact that
the amount of energy in a radiation field is proportional to its temperature to
the fourth power meant that the observed radiation had several thousand times
less energy than either Gamow or Peebles had predicted. This problem and other
difficulties with the Big Bang Theory were ignored and because Hoyle could not
explain the abundance of the light elements, the Big Bang Theory became the
dominate theory by default.
As will be shown ,The Steady State Galaxy Theory overcomes the problem Hoyle had with his steady state theory while at the same time does not have the problems which the Big Bang Theory has.
The purpose of this Web Page is to show that the Steady State Galaxy Theory can provide an alternative to the Big Bang Theory in explaining the universe around us. It covers the operation of Galaxies and shows that they recycle both Matter and Energy and are able to carry on indefinitely. It also explains the Shape of Galaxies, Red Shift, Microwave Background Radiation, Entropy, the Hydrogen-Helium Ratio and the abundance of other light elements.
If the reader takes an open-minded approach and looks at all aspects of the material presented here before reaching any conclusions, it will, at least, provide them with some food for thought.
At the center of each galaxy is a neutroid which acts to constantly recycle all the matter and energy in the galaxy. This neutroid is similar to a neutron star but is very much larger and has reached a size where the pressure and temperature at its surface are great enough to generate a nuclear fusion process. In the areas of the neutroid's magnetic poles, the products of fusion are trapped by the magnetic field and are pushed out along the magnetic field by the pressure of the nuclear fusion process going on below. This results in a column of material composed of hydrogen, helium and other light elements being ejected at each of the neutroid's two magnetic poles. This material moves out from the neutroid at essentially constant velocity until it reaches a point where the magnetic field is no longer strong enough to control it. Once free of the magnetic field the material then continues under it's own momentum to travel to the outer edge of the galaxy before starting to fall back toward the neutroid.
This process enables the neutroid to eject matter from itself and results in jets of hydrogen and helium ions being produced at each of the neutroid's two magnetic poles. The larger the neutroid becomes, the greater the size and velocity of its jets. This becomes a stable and self-limiting process where the amount of material attracted to the neutroid will be equal to the amount of material expelled at its magnetic poles. Eventually if too much material is added to the system, the velocity of the material being ejected from the magnetic poles will be sufficient for it to escape from the system altogether, thus limiting the total mass the system can accumulate. This process forms the basis of operation of all galaxies. The size and shape of galaxies are determined by the size of the neutroid at their center and its rate and plane of rotation. In the case of our own galaxy (The Milky Way) these jets have sufficient momentum to carry the material out to 100,000 light years distance from the center.
As the jets of gas stream out from the Neutroid, large clouds of it condense and form the stars which are predominately located in the spiral arms of the Galaxies. These stars eventually burn up their Hydrogen fuel and in the process create the other heavier elements we find in the universe, all the while continuing to travel to the outer edge of the galaxy. It has probably been at least 10 Billion years since the material of which our solar system is composed was initially ejected from the neutroid. It is now located about 2/3rds the distance to the edge of the galaxy, but since it is constantly decelerating it will take it another 20 billion years to reach its maximun distance from the neutroid. The total transit time from when material is ejected from the neutroid at the center of the Milky Way to when it returns to the neutroid will be about 60 Billion years.
Although the material ejected by the neutroid appears to travel in a spiral arc, in actual fact it is travelling in a straight radial line out from the neutroid and will eventually travel back along the same radial path to the neutroid. To help visualize this process, imagine setting up two super cannons, each on opposite sides of the earth at the equator and each pointing straight up and each capable of firing a projectile with sufficient velocity that it will take 12 hours to reach the top of its projectory. Now, fire a projectile from each cannon every hour for 12 hours and plot the position of each projectile at the end of the 12 hours. The result, as shown in figure 1, will be two spiral arms much like the Galactic arms are shaped.
IF we continue the experiment for another 3 hours and draw a new plot, figure 2, we find that the first projectiles that were fired have now passed the peak of their altitude and have started to fall back to earth and the whole spiral pattern appears to have rotated counterclockwise 45 degrees. However, the only changes in the positions of projectiles No.1 have been to move slightly closer to the earth along a radial line and they will continue falling back to earth along the same radial path and will impact the earth 24 hours after being fired. They do not themselves travel in a spiral path around the earth although the loci of their instantaneous positions forms a spiral which appears to be rotating.
Figure 3 represents a typical small galaxy which is composed of 3 parts, (a) a Central Core (Area 1), (b) 2 Jets of material being ejected from the core (Areas 1 to 2), and (c) Spiral Arms (Areas 2 to 3). The Central Core consists of a neutroid at the center and an obscuring mass of material trapped in the Neutroid's magnetic field. The areas from 1 to 2 are gigantic jets of gas which are being ejected by the Neutroid and are contained within its magnetic field. Star formation occurs in these areas. At point 2 the magnetic field of the Neutroid weakens to the extent that it no longer constrains the material within it and as the material continues to move outward it will now trace a spiral arc as per the previous illustrations in Figs. 1 & 2. At point 3 the hydrogen fuel has been consumed and although the remains of the burned out stars are still there they become invisible dark matter as they continue to travel to the top of their projectory and then fall back to the Neutroid.
Thus, the galaxies form huge recycling systems which will carry on indefinitely.
1.Hydrogen, helium and other light elements are ejected from the Neutroid.
2.Clouds of this material condense to forms stars which emit energy and in the process form heavier elements.
3.These stars eventually exhaust their fuel and die. In the process many of these stars will explode as supernovas. The heavier elements which we find in our solar system are the remnants from these dead stars.
4.All this material will travel to the outer edge of the galaxy and will then start falling back in toward the neutroid.
5.Upon hitting the neutroid, the force of the impact will be great enough that the atoms of heavier elements will be split apart and the temperature and pressure will be great enough that this incoming matter will be converted to neutrons.
6.In the areas of the neutroid's magnetic poles, a nuclear fusion reaction will take place that forces a streams of material to be expelled thus completing the cycle.
The Concept of the Steady State Galaxy as put forth above can account for the shape of all galaxies we see in the universe. As explained above, the spiral is the basic shape of galaxies. The exact shape will be determined by the size of the neutroid, the tilt of its magnetic axis with respect to its axis of rotation and its rate of rotation .
Our Milky-Way is typical of large mature galaxies in which it takes many billions of years for the magnetic poles to make one revolution. As well, the hydrogen ejected at the magnetic poles has sufficient velocity to reach a distance of 100,000 light-years from the Neutroid and it takes it tens of billions of years to reach that distance. If the rate of rotation of the magnetic poles of the Neutroid were much greater in relation to the velocity of the hydrogen jets, the spiral arms would overlap and become nondistinct thus forming an ELIPICAL Galaxy. If the magnetic axis were slightly less than 90 degrees with respect to the axis of rotation, a thicker galaxy would result.
BAR Galaxies are small galaxies in which the hydrogen fueling the Stars is all consumed before the Stars can escape the magnetic field of the Neutroid's magnetic poles.
Many galaxies such as M104(NGC4594) exhibit a very prominent dust lane about their edge. This is a feature that is difficult to explain using presently accepted theories but is to be expected in some types of galaxies under the steady state galaxy theory.
The Big Bang Theory was originally proposed in order to explain the 'RED Shift' of light received by us from distant galaxies. Light received from distant stars can be broken down and analyzed as to its spectral content. It has been found that stars of a similar size and age produce identical spectral patterns which are related to their atomic composition. However, it was also found that the wavelength of the light from distant galaxies was increased in proportion to their distance from us. Scientists have interpreted the cause of this effect to be due to a doppler shift, meaning that it is caused by the distant galaxies moving away from us,-i.e. the expanding universe. This doppler shift is the same as one gets standing near a railway track when a train passes blowing its whistle, as the train passes by, the sound of its whistle appears to drop in frequency.
In reality the universe we live in is not expanding and is in a steady state where its matter and energy are being constantly recycled. The so called Red Shift is caused by other factors. We know from a branch of Physics known as Quantum Mechanics that the Energy of a photon of light is defined by the equation E=hv where E is the energy of the photon, h is plancks' constant and v is its frequency. If for any reason energy is lost from a photon, its frequency will decrease in accordance with this equation.
To understand redshift, one must go back to basics and examine the very
nature of light.
Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum which extends from very low frequency radio waves with wavelengths greater than 100 kilometers to gamma rays and beyond with wavelengths less than 10^-14 meters. Visible light has a wavelength of 0.65 micrometers for red to 0.43 micrometers for violet.
In 1801, Thomas Young was the first person to successfully demonstrate the interference of light and thus to establish it's wave character. In 1814, Fresnel theorized that light represented an actual displacement of a material aether which he conceived as an all-pervading substance of very small density and of high rigidity. It was known at this time through the study of polarization that light was a transverse wave with no longitudinal component. Maxwell proposed a theory which required the vibration of light to be strictly transverse with no longitudinal component and in 1864 his paper entitled "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" expressed the results of his theoretical investigation in the form of four fundamental equations which have since become famous as Maxwell's equations. They were based on the earlier work of Oersted, Faraday and Henry concerning the relation between electricity and magnetism. They summarize these relations in concise mathematical form and constitute a starting point for the investigation of all electromagnetic phenomena.
In 1881 the Michelson-Morley experiments attempted to detect an aether drift by using a rotating interferometer. It was assumed that if an aether existed, it would flow freely through all matter and could thus be detected by variations in the fringe patterns as the interferometer was rotated. Because result of these and other similar experiments were not able to detect an aether drift, many scientists were led to believe that an aether did not exist.
When Einstein put forward his theory of relativity in 1905, it was claimed that no experiment using a rotating interferometer could prove the existence of an aether since relativity would cancel out the apparent changes in the length of the arms of the rotating apparatus. However, relativity did not deny the existence of the aether as postulated by Fresnel. Indeed, Einstein theorized that gravity was caused by the distortion of "space-time". What exactly did he mean by "space-time"? It appears that his "space-time" is just another name for aether.
Modern Cosmologists claim that the expansion of the universe under the Big Bang Theory is due to the expansion of "space" and it is the expanding "space" which is causing the stretching of photons (i.e. red shift). Again it sounds like the use of the word "space" here is just another name for aether. Cosmologists seem to believe that the material they call "space" has some rather magical properties. They claim that as it expands, it increases the distance between galaxies, that it stretches photons, but it does not cause the size of anything within galaxies to expand. If space were expanding. everything would expand including our measuring sticks, thus making such expansion impossible to detect.
There seems to be universal acceptance in the scientific community that an aether exists, whether it is called an aether, "space-time" or "space" is immaterial. As more powerful particle accelerators are built, scientists arefinding that a whole Zoo of sub-atomic particles exist. We can only speculate
at this time as to what are the smallest basic building blocks of the universe. Science cannot rule out the possibility of an aether through which light waves are transmitted. Indeed, it is quite possible that the aether itself may be made up of even smaller particles. If an aether exists, then it follows that light is a transverse electromagnetic wave in that aether as postulated by Fresnel.
The next question that must be answered is whether or not photons actually exist as some kind of combination of wave and particle or is light simply a wave in an aether. It has long been argued that since light can impart momentum on particles it strikes, it must have the properties of a particle and these particles are known as light quanta or photons.
In the case of sound, no one argues that sound is caused by particles called audiotons and yet a sound wave imparts momentum on particles it strikes. Sound waves cause the molecules in the air to move which in turn imparts the momentum in the particles they strike.
Similarly, ocean waves can exert tremendous forces on the objects they interact with. Again, it is the movement of the medium through which the wave passes that imparts this action and not some hypothetical particle. The same can be said of earthquake waves.
In the case of light waves, it is the movement of the medium (aether) which is imparting the momentum to the particles it strikes. Once it is accepted that light is a wave in an aether, a number of pieces of the puzzle fall into place:
(A) If light is a wave in an aether, then it stands to reason that the light wave would lose energy to that aether. If a transverse wave loses energy, it's wavelength will increase and this would then be the cause of the redshift which we observe from distant galaxies and which is proportional to the distance traveled.
(B) If light is losing energy to the aether, then the aether would heat up and this would account for the microwave background radiation which has the characteristics of a blackbody radiator at a temperature of about 2.725 degrees kelvin.
(C) If the aether does contain energy, it means it also has mass and this could be the missing mass which scientist have long been seeking.
(D) Cosmologists argue that the redshift cannot be caused by loss of energy of the light wave (tired light theory) to stray hydrogen atoms which permeate interstellar space through the Compton effect, because, if they did, the images from distant galaxies would be blurred. This blurring effect is not seen. However, if light waves were losing energy to the medium through which they travel, the distant
images would not be blurred.
Because of the downshifting in the frequency of light for whatever reason, there is a limit to how far it is possible to image distant galaxies. The actual universe will be far larger than we can imagine or detect and will probably be infinite in size.
A second argument which has been made to support the Big Bang Theory is the microwave background radiation. COBE has shown that the spectrum of the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR) is that of an ideal Black Body Radiator having a temperature of about 2.8 degrees K. It has also shown that this radiation has a Redshift/Blueshift to it, indicating that the earth is moving about 600Km/s relative to the shell of matter that emitted the radiation. Since this speed is too great for the earth's movement within the milky-way galaxy, it indicates that the source is outside our galaxy and that our galaxy is moving in relation to that source.
As indicated in the previous section dealing with redshift, the starlight photons radiated by galaxies gradually lose energy to the aether which then reradiates this energy as the Microwave Background Radiation. The wavelength of the photons of the MBR, at the peak of the spectrum radiation curve, will be about 1mm. Since the rate of loss of energy by photons will be inversely proportional to the wavelength of those photons, and since the MBR photons have a wavelength of more than a thousand times that of visible light, the percentage loss of energy by the MBR photons will be at a rate of over one thousand times less than that of a visible photon. (If it takes a visible photon 15 billion years to lose 3/4's of it's energy, then it would take a MBR photon 15,000 billion years to lose 3/4's of it's energy). It follows that since MBR photons have a range of travel of more than one thousand times that of visible light photons, they are also a thousand times more likely to encounter a galaxy and be absorbed by the matter of that galaxy then a visible light photon would.
Thus, energy is radiated by galaxies in the form of starlight photons. Energy from these photons is gradually converted to MBR photons. These MBR photons are eventually absorbed by some other galaxy.
Since the intensity of the microwave background radiation will be relatively constant throughout the universe (assuming an infinite steady state universe), the amount of energy a galaxy will absorb from it will be proportional to the size of that galaxy. The amount of energy a galaxy radiates is also proportional to it's size, thus an equilibrium will be reached where a galaxy will receive as much energy in the form of MBR photons as it itself radiates in the form of starlight photons.
A third argument that has been put forward in support of the Big Bang Theory is entropy, in that, it is argued that the universe must eventually run down into a state of thermal equilibrium. Energy exists in various forms such as atomic binding energies, thermal energy, potential and kinetic energy, etc., all of which are associated with matter, or it exists in photons which have been radiated by matter and will eventually be reabsorbed by matter. Under the Steady State Galaxy Theory as put forth above, since all matter in a Galaxy is recycled through the Neutroid on a regular basis, all energy contained by that matter is also recycled at the same time and, thus, the universe does not run down into a state of thermal equilibrium.
There is a perception that energy only flows from hot bodies to cooler ones. This is not true for radiant energy. The MBR photons which exhibit the characteristics of a 2.8 degree black body radiator do get absorbed by the much hotter material which makes up the galaxies. The critical factor which determines the direction of net flow of radiant energy is not the relative temperatures of the bodies but the energy densities they produce. In the case of our universe, the MBR radiation has an energy density equal to the starlight radiation energy density emitted by the galaxies. Thus, there is an equilibrium condition where galaxies receive as much energy in the form of MBR Radiation as they radiate in the form of Starlight Radiation and there will be no net flow of energy from the galaxies to the material in intergalactic space.
A fourth arguement which has been used to support the Big Bang theory is that it would account for the abundance of helium we find in the universe. The amount of helium present (24%) cannot be accounted for by star production and according to Gamow it was generated by the Big Bang.
Under the Steady State Galaxy theory, the nuclear fusion process which is expelling the material from the neutroid would generate large amounts of helium as well as other light elements and is the source of the excess helium found in the universe.
The latest Hubble pictures of quasars show that they are associated with galaxies and in most cases there is evidence that these galaxies have recently collided with other galaxies.
In normal galaxies, the neutroid at their center is obscured by a halo of material trapped in the neutroid's magnetic field. In the case of quasars, this halo of material has been temporarily destroyed by the collision with another galaxy and we are seeing the bare neutroid which is, as expected, extremely energetic.
The Steady State Galaxy Theory as put forth above can provide the basis for the operation of the Universe as it is seen to exist. It can not only account for the shape of all galaxies we see in the universe which is something no other theory as proposed so far can accomplish but it can also explain the existence of quasars.
As more data is gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope and other sources, it is becoming increasingly clear that the Big Bang theory cannot account for the universe around us. I believe the the Steady State Galaxy Theory as presented here can provide the basis of an alternative to the Big Bang Theory.
For a historical perspective of the Big Bang Theory see Keith Stein's Essay "The Big Bang Myth"Please E-mail me your comments and suggestions.